Quiz - Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

Posted by e-Health Tuesday, December 18, 2012 0 comments

The theory of psychosocial development proposed by Erik Erikson is one of the best-known theories of personality. Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages and described the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Test your knowledge of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development in this quiz.

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If you are not ready to take the Psychosocial Development Quiz, learn more about Erikson's stages of psychosocial development first by reading some of the articles below:

Erik Erikson Biography
Erik Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development contributed to our understanding of personality development throughout the lifespan. Learn more about his life, career, and how early experiences led to his interest in identity in this Erik Erikson biography. Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality and his theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Read this article to learn more about the psychosocial stages of development. Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
Learn more in this chart summarizing Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Erik Erikson and Identity Crisis
Are you experiencing an identity crisis? According to Erik Erikson, an identity crisis is a period of intense exploration of different identities. Learn more about identity crisis, Erik Erikson, and identity research.

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Bachelor's Psychology Careers

Posted by e-Health Monday, December 17, 2012 0 comments
While earning a graduate degree is required for many psychology jobs, the fact is that approximately 75% of students who earn a bachelor's degree in psychology do not go to graduate school. According to one study, only about 25% of psychology undergraduates end up working in a field that is closely related to their major. It is important to remember that a psychology degree can be used in many careers. By carefully planning your future and being aware of the different opportunities that are out there, you can find a career that is perfectly suited to your educational background, skills and personality.Carlos ChavezUndergraduate psychology programs help students acquire a wide range of interpersonal skills, which can then be put to use in a number of different sales and marketing positions. Employers value skills such as the ability to speak well and communicate effectively. If you are interested in working in this field, take classes that will improve your understanding of people and human behavior. Courses in social psychology, personality and communications can be especially beneficial.zSB(3,3)Brandon BankstonThe art and science of persuasion is a major topic in psychology, which is why advertising is often an ideal career choice for people with a bachelor's degree in psychology. Careers in this field often involve researching the target audience for a product or message and developing advertising materials based on this research. If you are interested in a career in this field, look for ways that you can gain practical experience now. Internships are an excellent way to get experience, find professional mentors and build networking relationships in your chosen field.Psychiatric TechnicianMarcin Balcerzak/iStockPhotoWhile some people with a bachelor's degree in psychology find work in other professions, some choose to work directly in the field of mental health and human services. A few potential job titles in this area include psychiatric technicians, mental health technicians and social work assistants. In most cases, these individuals work directly under the supervision and guidance of a licensed clinical psychologist or social worker. Job duties involve helping patients with basic daily needs, teaching life skills, conducting applied therapy sessions and performing related case management tasks.Career Counselorbo1982If you enjoy helping people discover their potential, then working as a career counselor can be a fulfilling choice. This job often involves helping people select a career, assisting those in the process of changing careers or providing vocational rehabilitation to individuals returning to the workforce. Some individuals choose to work with disabled adults who may need skills training, job search help, on-the-job training and regular workplace supervision.Probation OfficerLance KidwellIf you are interested in working in the field of criminal justice, you might want to consider a career as a probation or parole officer. Typically hired by local or state governments, probation and parole officers work directly with individuals who have been convicted of criminal offenses. These professionals supervise offenders at home, work and school settings to track behaviors, make recommendations to the courts and coordinate with drug treatment professionals or therapists.Writer CareerSanja GjeneroEarning a bachelor's degree in psychology generally requires a great deal of writing. After graduation, put those communication skills to work in a writing-related career. Some potential job titles in this area include technical writers, advertising copy writers and newspaper reporters.Sanja GjeneroPeople working in the field of market research perform a variety of tasks, including conducting interviews, performing opinion polls, collecting data and interpreting results. A bachelor's degree in psychology prepares students for work in this field by training graduates in statistical and scientific methodologies.Child Care CareersHeriberto HerreraAnother way to utilize your bachelor's degree in psychology is to become a child care worker. One way to work directly in psychology is to become a partial care worker in a mental health setting. Other options include working in a daycare or after-school program, or even opening up your own child care office.zSB(1,2)Lab AssistantRich Legg/iStockPhotoIf you have an interest in research and experimental psychology, working as a psychology laboratory assistant could be a great way to put your bachelor's degree to work. Some settings that might employ psychology lab assistants include university psychology programs, government agencies and businesses that study human behavior. Get a leg up on the competition by gaining valuable research experience today. Sign up for a research assistant position at your university, or consider taking an internship in a psych lab.Social Services CareersBrad Killer / iStockPhotoIndividuals with a bachelor's degree in psychology can also find career opportunities working in the social services sector for government agencies or non-profits. These positions might entail helping individuals locate psychological resources in their community, providing counseling services directly to clients and other types of case management services.Teacher CareerRich / iStockPhotoStudents who also earn a teaching certificate along with their bachelor's degree in psychology can also become teachers. Some graduates may opt to apply their knowledge of psychology indirectly as an elementary or middle-school teacher, while others may choose to teach psychology at the high school level. If you already hold a bachelor's degree in psychology, you might be able to enroll at an accredited teacher education program in order to earn a teaching certificate in your state. Contact your state's board of education to learn more about the requirements and any alternative routes to becoming a credentialed teacher that might be available.if(zSbL

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Classical v Operant

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Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts central to behavioral psychology. While both result in learning, the processes are quite different. In order to understand how each of these behavior modification techniques can be used, it is also essential to understand how classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ from one another.

Let's start by looking at some of the most basic differences.

First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist
Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviorsFirst described by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist
Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors

Even if you are not a psychology student, you have probably at least heard about Pavlov's dogs. In his famous experiment, Ivan Pavlov noticed dogs began to salivate in response to a tone after the sound had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. Pavlov quickly realized that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process.

Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.

Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward.

One of the simplest ways to remember the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

In operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives, while classical conditioning involves no such enticements. Also remember that classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished.

Today, both classical and operant conditioning are utilized for a variety of purposes by teachers, parents, psychologists, animal trainers and many others. In animal training, a trainer might utilize classical conditioning by repeatedly pairing the sound of a clicker with the taste of food. Eventually, the sound of the clicker alone will begin to produce the same response that the taste of food would.

In a classroom setting, a teacher might utilize operant conditioning by offering tokens as rewards for good behavior. Students can then turn in these tokens to receive some type of reward such as treat or extra play time.

References

Pavlov, I.P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.


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MAGIC MOMENT: What's Your EQ? - Emotional Intelligence Test

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MAGIC MOMENT
Kumpulan Cerita Inspiratif
What's Your EQ? - Emotional Intelligence Test
Dec 17th 2012, 05:58

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. A number of testing instruments have been developed to measure emotional intelligence, although the content and approach of each test varies. The following quiz presents a mix of self-report and situational questions related to various aspects of emotional intelligence. What is your emotional intelligence quotient? Take the quiz to learn more.

You can find more resources on emotional intelligence below.

What is Emotional Intelligence?
What exactly is emotional intelligence? Learn more about the history, importance, and measurements of emotional intelligence.
Quotes About Emotional Intelligence
What do researchers have to say about emotional intelligence? Learn more from these quotes on emotional intelligence.
More Psychology Quizzes
Test your knowledge of psychology topics in these academic quizzes. Learn more about yourself through various personality and self-assessment quizzes.

By visiting the rest of the Psychology site you can find a wealth of free psychology articles and resources, which include:


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What's Your EQ? - Emotional Intelligence Test

Posted by e-Health 0 comments

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. A number of testing instruments have been developed to measure emotional intelligence, although the content and approach of each test varies. The following quiz presents a mix of self-report and situational questions related to various aspects of emotional intelligence. What is your emotional intelligence quotient? Take the quiz to learn more.

You can find more resources on emotional intelligence below.

What is Emotional Intelligence?
What exactly is emotional intelligence? Learn more about the history, importance, and measurements of emotional intelligence.
Quotes About Emotional Intelligence
What do researchers have to say about emotional intelligence? Learn more from these quotes on emotional intelligence.
More Psychology Quizzes
Test your knowledge of psychology topics in these academic quizzes. Learn more about yourself through various personality and self-assessment quizzes.

By visiting the rest of the Psychology site you can find a wealth of free psychology articles and resources, which include:


View the original article here


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